Car Suspension

Automotive suspension is designed for the elastic connection between the wheels and the vehicle body, and for pothole vibration damping. Suspension should provide comfortable driving (smooth ride), traffic safety and cornering stability. Suspension characteristics depend on the parameters and the interaction of individual components, the type and the stiffness of the elastic elements, stabilizers, arms, dampers, engine mounts, wheelbase, track, and especially tires.

Car suspension includes guiding and elastic elements, damping elements (shock absorbers), anti-roll bars, the wheel supports and fixing elements.

The guiding elements provide a predetermined trajectory of movement of the wheels relative to the vehicle body. For guiding elements various arms and rods are used: control, tracking, and so forth.

The elastic elements perceive and convey the reaction forces to the vehicle body when wheels run over bumps in the road. Rubber, pneumatic or steel elastic elements are used in suspension. Springs, leaf springs and torsions represent steel elastic elements.

Rubber bushings and bushing pads reduce energy suspension. The main objective of the rubber elastic elements is to isolate the body from the noise and vibrations generated while driving, and provide a connection between suspension components and car body, wheel support.

Shock absorber is designed for the damping of the vehicle body’s vibration, resulting from potholes.

Anti-roll bar or sway bar or stabilizer bar – a rod of circular cross-section, with supports attached to the body, connecting the arms of the opposite wheels on one axle. The stabilizer is used to reduce body roll and improve vehicle stability when cornering. The anti-roll bar may be mounted on the front and rear axle.

In general, all suspensions are divided into two types, with a fundamentally different nature – dependent and independent.

In dependent suspension, wheels of one axle are rigidly connected to each other, and movement of one wheel in the axle affects the other. Dependent suspension was continuously improved and is used in one form or another still. This suspension type has a number of advantages. The first is that in contrast to the independent suspension, track of the wheel is not changed; wheels are always parallel to each other. In the case of no-driving axle rear wheels may have a little fail of alignment, but on a relatively flat surface are always in the best position perpendicular to the surface of the road, regardless of the suspension decline and body roll. Dependent suspension due to its simplicity is highly reliable.

In independent suspension wheels do not have a rigid connection on axle, and moving one of them has little to affect of the other. In addition, the wheels alignment and in some types the wheelbase are being changed while the compression and rebound of suspension, sometimes quite considerably. The design of independent suspension allows to reduce unsprung weight and improve the smoothness of driving. In modern cars independent suspension is used as the standard design of  front and rear suspensions.